LVEM 5 electron microscopes are involved in different research projects dedicated to novel cancer treatment techniques. This topic is very up-to-date because cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
Modern therapies are often based on targeted drug delivery directly to the affected tissues. New promising therapeutic methods and consequences were thoroughly discussed in several articles published in the last couple of months.
Delivery of Protein Kinase A by CRISPRMAX and Its Effects on Breast Cancer Stem-Like Properties
An international scientific team based in China, in collaboration with the University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, has investigated the direct delivery of protein kinase A (PKA) enzymes to cancer cells. Kinase A inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is considered responsible for chemoresistance and tumour recurrence in patients.
The team utilized nanotechnology, particularly commercial Lipofectamine CRISPRMAX reagent, to transport drug directly into breast cancer cells. They made series of experiments to optimize delivery parameters and successfully delivered fluorescent PKA via CRISPRMAX to breast cancer cells.
Apart from several techniques such as dynamic light scattering, flow cytometry, mammosphere assay, and chemoresistance assay, the team used the low voltage transmission electron microscope LVEM 5 conveniently for imaging PKAs-loaded CRISPRMAX complexes.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces autophagy-relatedApoptosis associated with LC3B II and Beclin expression of bladder cancer cells
A team led by Zhaofa Yin from Loudi Central Hospital of Hunan Province and Juan Li from 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University published a fascinating study revealing a relationship between bladder cancer drinking of green tea. They investigated Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an extraordinary chemical substance contained in green tea, which is considered an active inhibitor of the formation and progression of many kinds of tumour.
The proof of EGCG´s beneficial effect on human health is the lower incidence of bladder cancer in the traditional green tea-consuming countries. However, although this anti-tumour ingredient extracted from green tea is already well-known, the mechanism of the autophagy-mediated apoptosis remained undiscovered.
In this paper, the team reported induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through regulating the autophagy pathway caused by EGCG, a process successfully observed by the LVEM5 unit. In conclusion of their study, the authors suggested drinking green tea as a promising strategy in bladder cancer prevention.
Physicochemical Characterization of PHBV Nanoparticles Functionalized with Multiple Bioactives Designed to be Theranostics for Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is a very aggressive tumour, causing more than 1.1 million deaths per year worldwide. It is responsible for approximately 10 per cent of all cancer-induced deaths. Furthermore, almost 50 per cent of patients die before the first year after being diagnosed with lung cancer. All of these data are extremely alarming.
The low voltage electron microscope LVEM 5 is an indispensable machine used to research new therapeutic procedures.
Lung cancer is usually connected with a chronic bronchial infection. Thus, the research of complex remedies combining chemotherapy and antimicrobial treatment is essential.
The research project reported in the article by a team from Chile is dedicated to the design and synthesis of polymer Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles loaded with clarithromycin, paclitaxel, and SPION.
SPIONs are Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles that can kill the tumour cells by the local raising of temperature-induced by the presence of an alternating magnetic field (hyperthermia). Clarithromycin is an antibiotic against chronic infection, and paclitaxel has a cytostatic effect.
These loaded nanoparticles may be candidates for use in theranostics against lung cancer.
The team used LVEM 5 to determine the morphology of the nanoparticles, which is different for nanoparticles with paclitaxel and clarithromycin, although their physicochemical characteristics are similar. LVEM 5´s low voltage enabled the researchers to image organic materials without staining procedure.
Zhou, J.-N.; Rautio, T.-C.; Liu, C.; Xu, X.-Y.; Wang, D.-Q.; Guo, Y.; Eriksson, J.; Zhang, H. Delivery of Protein Kinase A by CRISPRMAX and Its Effects on Breast Cancer Stem-Like Properties. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010011
Yin Z, Li J, Kang L, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces autophagy-related apoptosis associated with LC3B II and Beclin expression of bladder cancer cells. J Food Biochem. 2021;00:e13758. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13758
Solar, P., Herrera, N., Cea, D. et al. Physicochemical Characterization of PHBV Nanoparticles Functionalized with Multiple Bioactives Designed to be Theranostics for Lung Cancer. J Clust Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-020-01912-6